Socionic library
articles, books and educational materials

of the International institute of Socionics

Kryzhko V.V.
Theory and practice of management in education

Socionics is a science that considers people as carriers of certain types of information metabolism, interacting with each other on the basis of objective social laws.

Socionics is a science that considers people as carriers of certain types of information metabolism, interacting with each other on the basis of objective social laws.


  • N.L. Kolominsky, doctor of psychological sciences, professor;
  • M.I. Prykhodko, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor.


Among the many sciences that describe one or another aspect of personality psychology, socionics, which arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s, stands out for its consistent and comprehensive examination of the human psyche and behavior. Socionika is a little more than 20 years old, but it is difficult to name all areas of its application. Socionics can be used in the family, in a team, in self-management, to create a psychological climate, in the formation of pedagogical teams.

What is socionics? A more or less successful definition looks like this: socionics is a science that considers people as carriers of certain types of information metabolism, interacting with each other on the basis of objective social laws.

Socionics, as a science, was the result of the development of the theory of the structure of the human psyche, the origins of which were two giant figures in the psychology of the 20th century - Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. Its founder, A. Augustynavichute, considers 1968 to be the date of the emergence of socionics.

Freud’s ideas about the organization and functioning of the psyche were developed by the outstanding Swiss psychologist, psychiatrist and philosopher K.G. Jung (1875–1961). Jung singled out optimal and irrational functions of the psyche. He classified thinking and emotions as rational, feeling and intuition as irrational. Each pair denotes mutually exclusive functions, that is, opposite in content, which is expressed by the dominance of one or another mental function in different people.

Of decisive importance was the research of Aushra Augustinavichute from Lithuania, who perfected Jung’s typology and built a system that included 16 types of information metabolism.

Typology K.G. Boy

Jung’s typology and socionics confirm that people are prone to personality manifestations from birth. Jung’s typology considers four pairs of such tendencies, which socionics calls the main characteristics of types. Depending on what inclinations
dominate, that a person is a carrier of one of a pair of basic signs. According to the terminology of Jung’s typology, a person can have the following type:

Extravertny or Introvertny
Sensory or intuitive
Thinking or Feeling
Reasonable or Impulsive

In socionics, other names of the main signs are accepted and a fundamentally different system is designated:

Extraverty Introverty
Sensory Intuitive
Logical Ethical
Rational Irrational

Extrovert-introvert type

In the daily practice of communication, we notice that there are sociable, energetic people who can do several things at the same time. They have many friends and acquaintances, they are always in the center of events. And there are people who are the opposite of the first: they are restrained, silent, withdrawn, and their inner peace is a mystery to others. The first are extroverts, the second are introverts.

The concept of "extrovert" denotes the peculiarity of the psyche of a person who is turned to the outside world and subordinate to the requirements of the ego. Therefore, extroverts in their thoughts and actions are based on objective data obtained from the surrounding world and real objects and are usually inclined to obey the requirements of society, business interests, other people’s opinion, which is more important to them than their own desired. Therefore, they focus on objects - people, things, money..., but the relationships and dependencies between these objects are insignificant for an extrovert, and they can change them as they please.

If an extrovert feels that he is needed, that there is no way to do without him, then he will act in any conditions, because responsibility for him is a strong moral factor. But the concept of debt is unacceptable for extroverts, the address "you owe, you owe" acts on him as an irritant. In a situation where only the performance of duties is required without showing initiative, the extrovert quickly gives up, strives to quickly "complete" the routine work in order to release his creative energy somewhere else.

An "introvert" is a person whose consciousness is directed towards his inner world, for him his feelings and experiences are more important than external events. Feelings, thoughts, desires and ideas about the world are more important than the current situation. For an introvert, the main thing is not objects, but relationships between them.

Introverts do not like responsibility, but they like duties. They are happy to fulfill what is considered their duty and obligation, which allows them to be active, they try to avoid what is called responsibility. The very word "responsibility" reminds them of a sentence, a punishment. For an introvert, activity is a bad sign, he tends not to stand out. An introvert, when he does something superfluous, is crushed and suffers for a long time.

Touch-intuitive type

Sensory type people perceive the surrounding world "here and now".Most often they live in the present day. This is what they say about them: "After us - at least a flood." They don’t know how to predict the future.

Sensory people doubt rarely - they know what they want. Sensory goes boldly, confidently, notices obstacles, bypasses or suppresses them. Strives for cleanliness and order. Appointment of sensors - practical work. But intuition is uncreative, inert.

Intuitive physical sensations are indeterminate, they poorly evaluate their physical "I". They often doubt when making a decision. Ready to clear the way for everyone, inclined to organize riots. Their purpose is the production of new ideas.

Logical-ethical type

"Logical" perfectly understand the objective regularities of the surrounding world, easily distinguish the main and the secondary in any case. They have a bad understanding of people’s relationships, their feelings and emotions. Their own emotions and feelings are a mystery to them, because they live by the voice of reason. They do not know how to talk about their feelings and do not like them. People are evaluated according to the principle of "smart - unreasonable", "business - not business". They like to prove the expediency or inexpediency of an action.

"Ethical" are people who know how to make friends with others, who are empathetic. They boldly manipulate their own and other people’s feelings. Any emotions (positive and negative) have value for them: these emotions perceive the world. In the field of objective relationships with objects and objects of the material world, they feel insecure. Started the business, get stuck in details and secondary issues. People are evaluated from the position of "good - bad". They like to persuade people.

Rational-irrational type

"Rational" people treat what is happening thoughtfully, with a ready-made opinion. They react to emotions - with emotions, to a concession - with a concession, sensibly, thoughtfully, taking into account personal experience. They seem harsh and determined. They like to plan their activities, think about the nature of their behavior. They live according to the principle "Freedom is a conscious necessity." They get lost in an irrational environment.

"Irrational" begin to act only when they are disturbed by some feeling. Their reaction is a creative adaptation to the situation. They feel uncomfortable in a team organized in a rational order.

In Jung’s typology, it is customary to call psychological types by abbreviations (ESFP, INTP...). However, such conventional designations are poorly remembered and difficult to pronounce. Therefore, in addition to the canonical ones named (logico-sensory extrovert...), a system was introduced for convenience
pseudonyms that are easy to remember. There are several such systems: one belongs to the professor of the University of California David Keirsa, the second belongs to the founder of socionics A. Augustynovichute, the third belongs to the Kyiv School of Psychoinformatics. All existing pseudonym systems are abstract and far from ideal.

Typology offers three main methods of sociotype identification:

  • with the help of the main type features;
  • with the help of characteristics of sociotypes;
  • with the help of identification tests.