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of the International institute of Socionics

Timko D.S.
The exact meaning of information aspects and methodology for determining types of information in speech

The article sheds light on one of the fundamental socionic concepts - the concept of informational aspect introduced by Aushra Augustinavichute and proposes a methodology for identifying informational aspects in human speech as the primary source of information about the type of informational metabolism. The technology involves the analysis of evaluative and descriptive words in speech and their meanings: all meanings are divided into eight groups based on strict but not complex criteria and are correlated with socionic infoaspects. The proposed methodology meets the criteria of scientific falsifiability and It has been empirically validated multiple times. The presented simple and accurate approach to determining infoaspects will help address the issue of socionics typing convergence and has the potential to serve as the basis for further scientific experiments and the development of typing methods.

Keywords: socionics, informational aspect, methodology, lexical analysis, information.


In socionic theory, there are 8 so-called "information aspects", which are considered to be "aspects of human beings", i.e. certain discourses in which different socionic types are dealt with differently. The generally accepted sense of info aspects is roughly as follows:

Business logic P Work, optimization of processes
Structural logic L Logical thinking, classifications, and structuring
Emotions ethics E Perception of the world through emotions and their nuances
Relationships ethics R Feelings, relationships, and sympathies
Volitional sensory F Appearance of objects, aggressiveness, volitional qualities
Sensations sensory S Bodily pleasures, cleanliness, sensations
Possibilities intuition I Ability to abstract, grasp the essence
Time intuition T Images, memories, fantasies, sense of time

In the writings of Aushra Augustinaviciute [reference to "Dual Nature" or "Socion" ?], the creator of socionics, the concept of information aspect, also called "information type", was not precisely defined, which gave rise to wide interpretations of how to attribute human personality manifestations to one info aspect or another.

And in spite of the fact that in classical socionics "information" is the key concept, today the overwhelming majority of people who are fond of socionics, do not use it in their analysis of personality - we also call this process "type determination" - information as such, they do not analyze reception, processing and giving out of information concerning belonging of this information to info-aspects, and those who carry out such analysis, do not have exact determination rules.

Often, conclusions about a socionic type (also known as Information Metabolism Type or IMT) are drawn based on facts and assessments that are only indirectly related to the socionic type. For example, such conclusions may be based on biographical facts, habits, and character assessments. However, even in cases where the speech of the typed individual is analyzed, assessments are usually given to the higher-level meanings of what is said: ideas, thought directions, and overall meaning, rather than the lower-level aspects: the form and structure of speech and the lexemes used.

It is precisely this state of affairs that currently hinders the socionic community from developing a unified tool for assessing the informational manifestations of representatives of sociotypes and coming to an agreement on the meaning of such a basic concept as the "informational aspect."
In this work, we will attempt to provide precise, rigorous definitions for infoaspects that can be applied to create and test scientific hypotheses, and above all, to develop a typing methodology that could be clearly understood, not require special knowledge, and not allow for misinterpretations.

First and foremost, we will strive to give a clear definition to the subject of analysis, namely the concept of "information." Based on the obtained meaning, we will then move on to the types of information, which are the socionic infoaspects.

Information and Speech

The concept of information is quite extensive, but in general, definitions converge on the idea that information must have the ability to be recorded on a medium, and it also implies a coding system, or in simpler terms, the presence of a "language" for recording and reading information. For example, information includes source code, a sequence of zeros and ones in binary code, a message in Morse code, and a set of traffic light signals. However, in the case of a set of traffic light signals, we must first record this set on a medium before we can speak of receiving information. This recording can take the form of a set of schematic pictures or even human speech, for example: "from top to bottom: red, inactive, inactive".

Thus, the perception of the surrounding world by the eye’s retina alone is not information, but a verbal description of what we have seen.

These considerations lead us to the thesis that in the case of the human psyche, the primary and practically fundamental method of synthesizing and analyzing information is human speech.
Of course, in addition to speech, the human psyche determines many other manifestations of personality: these are behavior patterns, facial expressions, intonations, and even gait. But only in the case of speech can we talk about information as such, which is why the object of scientific analysis in this work is specifically human speech as a means of information exchange.
In order to analyze speech, we will introduce the concept of "lexemes" and divide the elements of speech into groups.

A lexeme is a unit of meaning conveyed by an indivisible word, a fixed phrase, or a speech expression.

The lexeme is the smallest unit of information, and we would like to draw attention to the distinction between the lexeme and the word in order to emphasize that the focus of the analysis is on meanings, rather than the words themselves. After all, the same word can be used in speech to convey completely different meanings. For example, the verb “strike” can be used to convey the sense of a physically impacted movement - “He strikes the ball with great force” - as well as to convey, for instance, making a sudden and strong impression on someone - “The tragic story strikes a chord with the audience”.

Without delving into philology, let’s try to categorize the infinite set of existing lexemes into types suitable for comparison with informational aspects in socionics.
Even without possessing specialized philological knowledge, it is possible to distinguish three major groups in lexemes.

  • Evaluative: containing a certain evaluation of an object, without describing it. For example: great, beautiful, legitimate.
  • Descriptive: perceptual, describing objects of perception without evaluation. For example: plop down, puncture, architecture.
  • Demonstrative: pointing to an object without description or evaluation. For example: I, you, stick, head.

The simplicity of the meanings of demonstrative lexemes allows us to make the assumption that at the initial stage of speech formation in Homo sapiens, only such lexemes existed, while evaluative and descriptive ones developed later during the evolutionary processes of the psyche.
It’s also worth noting that the presented division of lexemes into groups is not based on parts of speech: evaluations can be both nouns and verbs, and descriptions can be adjectives. For example, the noun "a scoundrel" and the verb "to take offense" are evaluations, while the adjective "friable" is a description.

Evaluative and descriptive lexemes

The first important thesis of this work is the thesis that the socionic set of information aspects of logic and ethics is identical to evaluative lexemes, while descriptive lexemes, in turn, pertain to the types of information known in socionics as the macro-aspects of sensory and intuition.
In order to match each information aspect with its group of lexemes, we will need two more divisions, which we will carry out using the mutually exclusive division already present in socionics: the Logic-Ethics information axis is divided into mutually exclusive macro-aspects of Logic and Ethics, and the Intuition-Sensory axis, accordingly, into Intuition and Sensory. The difference between the poles of these axes lies in the degree of explicitness of information; in various research works, these degrees are described with words like precise/imprecise, explicit/implicit, and similar terms.

Applied to Logic/Ethics, and thus to evaluative lexemes, it is not difficult to see that evaluative lexemes can indeed be divided based on this criterion. For example, we will attribute precise evaluations (it is also permissible to call them "explicit") to the Logic macro-aspect, i.e., evaluations whose accuracy can be verified with facts. For instance, the evaluation "legal" can be verified by knowing the facts of the action and the text of the legal codex of the country where the action is recognized as lawful.

As for the Ethical macro-aspect, we will attribute imprecise, implicit, and subjective evaluations, the accuracy of which cannot be verified. These are usually evaluations given in the realm of morality and human feelings. For example, there are no standards and laws to determine the status of "great," so we classify this evaluative lexeme as ethical.

Applying a similar approach to Sensing/Intuition, we will define sensory lexemes as specifically descriptive, or more precisely, as describing physical reality that can be sensed with the organs of perception, what is called "to touch with hands." For example: to flop down, to shut up, to grab - these are sensory lexemes, but only in cases when they describe physical reality. When the same words are used in an abstract sense, we get intuitive lexemes. For example: "he shut the window up" means physical action and this is a sensory lexeme, but “He should shut up” means evaluate somebody’s silence with a negative connotation and this lexeme is ethical or at least definitely not sensory.

Intuitive lexemes, as seen from the examples provided, often use conventionally "sensory" words in an abstract sense. However, they also have their own vocabulary - words designed for abstract descriptions and nothing more: architecture, era, feudalism.
So, we have divided the entire set of evaluative-descriptive lexemes into four groups. But to fully correspond with socionic information aspects, we still need to divide each of these groups in half. We will do this using the socionic concept of "white" and "black" aspects.
Absolute and relative lexemes

"Black" and "white" are conventional terms in socionics used to denote the so-called "extraverted" and "introverted" information aspects. The meaning of this division is also described as "absolute" and "relative", but there is, unfortunately, no more specific description, at least in classical socionics.

Nevertheless, we can apply the simple principle of absoluteness/relativeness to our groups of lexemes.


Let’s start with Ethics: we will consider as absolute those ethical lexemes that provide an ethical (low-precision, subjective) evaluation, independent of any other ethical qualities implied in the speech construction elements. In simpler terms, an Ethics evaluation cannot answer the question "towards whom?" For example:
Is it possible to be cheerful towards someone? No, therefore this lexeme belongs to the Ethics aspect.

Is it possible to get angry towards someone? Of course, we can imagine many situations where a person gets angry from interacting with another person, but the lexeme itself does not imply the obligatory existence of an additional object of the direction of the feeling and assesses only the emotional state of a single individual. Therefore, this lexeme belongs to the Ethics aspect.
In turn, White Ethics R lexemes always imply a second object, the relationship to which is being assessed: sneaky(towards someone), friendly (towards someone), rude(towards someone).
Thus, at this stage of synthesizing a set of rules for determining the type of information in lexemes, we can already see that Black Ethics E indeed evaluates emotions, while White Ethics aspect evaluates human relationships - which overall corresponds to the descriptions of the aspects provided in classical socionics.


Let’s continue with the Logic macro-aspect: we will consider as absolute those logical lexemes that provide a strict, objective evaluation, independent of other logical assessments and facts implied in the speech construction.

The most straightforward group of lexemes that satisfy our condition includes facts and numbers (which, in essence, are also facts), something like "three-meter" or "two-percent."

However, upon detailed examination of a large number of logical lexemes, we may notice that there are many lexemes that provide various resource-based evaluations, and these evaluations are not relative.

Let’s analyze this phenomenon using the example of the word "detriment." This evaluative lexeme signifies the assessment of a certain amount of resources that have been lost. Often, we see the use of this and other resource-related lexemes along with numbers that measure these resources, for example, "a detriment of one million dollars was incurred." However, since specifying the extent of the damage or benefit is not mandatory and cannot affect the type of information itself, we have a whole group of lexemes that do not contain numbers but indicate them, and this is the Black Logic aspect P.

Similarly, the Black Logic P aspect group includes other subgroups of lexemes that indicate facts and numbers. For example, "skilled" - indicates the fact of possessing a skill. "Knowledgeable" and "educated" - indicate the fact of having knowledge and education, respectively. "Consist of" - is a factual list of elements, without an evaluation of their relative arrangement or influence on each other.

A significant subgroup o the Black Logic aspect lexemes is the "functional" subgroup. It contains lexemes whose meaning asserts the presence or absence of a function:, useful, useless, capable and other -able words (breathable atmosphere)
Thus, we have identified three subgroups in Evaluative Aspect lexemes:

  • Measurement-related
  • Resource-related
  • Functional
    Despite the seeming heterogeneity of this type of evaluation, identifying Black Logic P aspect lexemes in practice is not difficult: they can be applied in almost any conversation topic, and the set of commonly used words is relatively small and easy to learn.


Let’s move on to the next information axis and describe the way sensory lexemes are divided into black and white.

The simplest lexemes describing absolute physical properties of objects in the physical world are those that denote properties like "solid" or "elastic."

However, the most complex in meaning are lexemes that describe the movement of objects, typically presented in the form of verbs. "To shove," "to hoist," "to gash," "to pierce" - and many other verbs that precisely describe specific movements belong to the Black Sensory F of information. No other significant groups of lexemes for the Black Sensory aspect have been identified, although there are individual examples, such as the word "cumbersome" in the sense of "hindering manipulation due to its size or shape."

As for relative sensory descriptions, their meanings are represented by lexemes that specifically describe the relative positioning or interaction of two or more objects or parts of an object. "Shaky," "swollen," "splitted," "seared," "cracked."

When analyzing the meaning of sensory lexemes, it should be noted that while Black Sensory F lexemes imply the presence of a second object on which the "shoving" or other action takes place, categorizing a lexeme into the White Sensory should only be done when there is explicit indication of all objects involved in the description.

For example, the meaning of the word "shaky," when used in a physical sense, does not describe the specific action by which the "shaking" occurred. However, it does describe the relative position of a certain nest and the body within it, describing the presence of a gap between them. Therefore, we classify this lexeme as White Sensory S.

Some White Sensory S lexemes, as expected, belong to the culinary theme. In this context, relative White Sensory S descriptions acquire significant importance, as even the smallest features of the physical structure of food are crucial for people.

Let’s analyze this culinary subgroup using the example of the lexeme "seared" in the sense of "brown the outer layer more than the inner." The meaning of this lexeme vividly demonstrates the structure of White Sensory S information: one physical body is more cooked, another is raw, and together they create a unified object described as "seared."


Let’s conclude our study with intuitive, implicit descriptive lexemes, which essentially are abstractions. In absolute abstract descriptions related to the Infoaspect of Black Intuition I, several conditional subgroups can be distinguished:

  • Directly abstract lexemes: feudalism, architecture, to reign.
  • Idioms: to put someone on the spot, to put a foot in, to hit the nail on the head.
  • Comparisons: (chaos as if a herd of mammoths ran through, this project is like an amateur hour).

During experimental checks, a tendency was also observed, alongside Black Intuition I lexemes, to use pronominal adverbs like "some”, "somewhere", "here and there”, and so on. Formally, we cannot categorize such lexemes into our selected set of evaluative-descriptive lexemes. However, this feature can still be utilized in typification and analysis. The practice of using pronominal adverbs among Black Intuits can be explained by a general inclination of the psyche towards indefinite and abstract descriptions, avoiding specificity.

And finally, let’s examine the most intriguing mechanism, in the author’s view, of forming relative abstract descriptions in order to understand why "White Intuition T is time".

If we carefully examine White Sensory S lexemes, we can see that the principle of relativity in their descriptions is implemented in such a way that it focuses on describing not so much the interaction of two absolute objects, but rather the interaction of parts within the object. For example, when we fluff a pillow (or whisk eggs for an omelet), we are describing the relative movement of parts inside the filler, even though, from the outside, from the perspective of the Black Sensory F, it’s just a pillow and we are simply beating it.

Even a loose tooth is described not as a tooth or a socket - this lexeme does not describe them - but only as the presence of play between the tooth and the socket, the wiggling.
A seared onion ring has an internal structure of "being seared," but this is not evident when viewed from the outside.

In other words, it would also be correct to label the characteristic of sensory information as an "external/internal" feature.

Now let’s apply this principle when examining T-lexemes, which are relative abstract descriptions. As mentioned above, I information in the general and simple case constitutes abstractions, and if we consider the question of how the interactions between parts of the abstraction can occur, it turns out that the internal states of abstract objects and ideas always span each other with some extended process over time.

To illustrate this thought, let us allow for a touch of literary style.
Let’s return to the pillow and its S-descriptions: in the physical space we are in, when fluffing a pillow, there is a top and a bottom, and the pillow itself has a topological shape and proportions. It can be flattened or fluffed into a stable cube. But what if we move on to an abstract object and try to operate with its "fabric"? For example, how would we describe the diversity of internal states of an abstract concept like feudalism? Where is feudalism’s top and bottom, what is its shape, and can it be changed from within?

It turns out that while feudalism doesn’t have a top and a bottom, it does have a beginning and an end: there is the emergence of the feudal system as a phenomenon, and there is the loss of relevance and effectiveness of the system due to the development of productive technologies or other processes. And if we wanted to change the "shape" of feudalism, we could name, for example, a form of feudalism in which a vassal can choose a suzerain and a form in which they cannot - and the action of giving a new form would be an extended process over time.
Thus, it becomes clear why T-lexemes always point to an extended process over time, and the classical name of this infoaspect is "intuition of time". Here are a few examples of I-lexemes: revive, subside, at the stage of, precede, foreseen.


To summarize: we have analyzed all eight types of information presented in socionics and found for each type a comprehensive group of lexemes - minimal units of information transmitted through words, phrases, or speech expressions.

Thus, we have obtained a precise tool for analyzing the composition of human speech infoaspects. This tool can be used both for the personal study of words that interest us and for creating a precise methodology for determining socionic type.

Of course, for creating such a methodology, a simple quantitative assessment of infoaspects in speech is not enough. Other tools will be needed, such as determining the strength and weakness in handling lexemes representing an aspect and determining extraversion/introversion. However, even with just knowledge about the information composition of a person’s speech, it is possible to verify simple socionic theses. For example, drawing conclusions about the priority of value aspects over non-value aspects can be done without special statistical work, simply by observing a person.

The author of this work has created corresponding tools for analysis and established a rigorous methodology. With their help, not only socionics types of hundreds of people were determined, but also the theses outlined in this work were tested. Additionally, a dictionary of the most popular lexemes for each type of information was created. It is important to note that the more complex the meaning of a lexeme, the more characteristic the handling of it is for representatives of a certain socionic type. In turn, primitive lexemes that do not require significant mental effort for operations with them are suggested to be excluded from the analysis. Examples: bad, long, quickly, pay.

One of the results of this work is the thesis that the so-called "infoaspects" turn out to be types of information and nothing else: not fields of activity and not "aspects of the world". This thesis explains why Esenin can run a business, while Jack can be an unemployed artist: their psychotypes allow or hinder them from working with information of one kind or another, but nothing more. However, it is worth noting that innate skills in working with lexemes of a certain type not only define our thinking but ultimately also greatly influence our interests, talents, and inclinations.

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